柬埔寨: 恆福糖業旗下公司被指侵占柏威夏省Kuoy族原住民土地

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[企業責任資源中心廣東恆福糖業集團(嵐峰及瑞峰母公司)回應,公司未提供回應]

特賓棉芷區是Kuoy族的主要聚居地。 Kuoy族主要從事小規模的農業生產活動,並在居住地附近的森林中採集非木材林產品。大多數村民自1979年紅色高棉政權垮台以來一直生活在這片土地上。根據柬埔寨2001年《土地法》,這些村民是這片土地的合法所有人(截至2001年,他們在此生活的時間超過了50年)。然而,在2001年,由於柬埔寨全國性土地管理體系的不健全(1),以及其他因素(可能包括腐敗)的影響,嵐峰和瑞峰兩家中國公司依據經濟用地特許權分別獲得了9015公頃和8841公頃屬於村民的土地。這兩家公司是一個由五家中國公司組成的企業集團[廣東恆福糖業]的分公司,註冊地址完全相同。雖然經濟土地特許權規定每家公司只能持有不超過1萬公頃的土地,但這個由五家公司組成的企業集團在2012年卻獲得了多達22萬公頃的土地。

隨著公司在村民的土地上和社區所有的森林內圈出甘蔗種植用地,並砍倒珍貴的松香樹以騰出土地,雙方的衝突開始加劇。據報導,公司沒有對上述措施造成的環境或社會影響進行評估。在清理土地時,公司還意外地發現了8世紀的古遺跡——一座砂岩石刻佛像。村民們擔心,公司會將佛像據為己有。在當地非政府組織和佛教僧侶的支持下,村民發起了各種形式的抵制和動員活動。村民在日以繼夜守護土地的同時,也向地方政府提出了抗議;他們還將種植園的作物從地裡拔出,並破壞已經收割的甘蔗。

警察有時會臨時拘留一些村民、非政府組織成員和僧侶,公司則對毀壞甘蔗的村民提起了訴訟。村民現在已經對中國公司發起了訴訟,要求公司就毀壞世居土地、社區林木和耕地的行為賠償60萬美元(向每個村賠償20萬美元)。由於衝突沒有得到解決,在2015年初,村民繳獲了兩台推土機,並將兩名駕駛員挾為人質,以抗議公司的開發行為。地方政府最終同意暫停清理有爭議的地區,以化解衝突。社區和地方政府隨後開始對社區土地進行化界,以決定土地的所有權。目前,最後結果尚不明朗。

本文涉及的土地糾紛只是柬埔寨經濟用地特許權計劃引發的眾多土地糾紛中的一例。經濟用地特許權為以'促進國家經濟發展'為由,不惜犧牲環境和社區,侵占土地和發展大規模農業經濟提供了法律框架。據估計,私營投資者根據經濟用地特許權在柬埔寨獲得了約為260萬公頃的土地。投資者將農民驅離他們的土地,多達70萬人因此受到影響。

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作者: Environmental Justice Atlas

Tbeng Meanchey district is comprised of various villages, most of them inhabited by the Kuoy ethnic minority, who are engaged in small-scale farming and the collection of Non-Timber Forest Products…Most villagers live there since the fall of the Khmer Rouge Regime in 1979, which makes them…the legal and legitimate land owners…However, in 2011…two Chinese firms, Lan Feng and Roy Feng International [both subsidiaries of Chinese company Hengfu Sugar], were granted ELCs on villagers’ land, amounting to 9,015ha and 8,841ha, respectively…

Conflict exacerbated as the companies started to demarcate villagers’ land and community forests for the development of sugarcane plantations, clearing the area and cutting down valuable Resin trees. No measures were reported to be taken regarding an environmental or social impact assessment…the companies further stumbled across 8th century relicts such as a sandstone carving of Buddha and villagers feared they would keep it. All kind of resistance and mobilizations started, supported by local NGOs and Buddhist monks. Villagers watched the area during night and day, protested in front of local authorities, pulled out plantation crops and destroyed harvested sugarcane…

In several occasions, villagers as well as NGO members and monks were temporarily held by the police and the company filed a lawsuit against the villagers for destroying their sugarcane. The villagers in turn, filed a lawsuit against the companies, demanding a compensation of 600,000$ for the destruction of their ancestral lands, community forests and farming lands…

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作者: Jack Davies & Kong Meta, Phnom Penh Post

…On Saturday, provincial police, military police and Forestry Administration officials carried out what eyewitnesses have described as a violent eviction of six families from Bos Thom village in Tbeng Meanchey district’s Brame commune. The village sits in the middle of five economic land concessions held by subsidiaries of Chinese sugar manufacturer Rui Feng.

The evictions, however, appear to be in contravention of Sub-Decree 154, signed by Hun Sen on July 18, ordering that several hundred hectares be returned to the state by  Rui Feng subsidiary Lan Feng to be allocated to ethnic Kuoy families living in Bos Thom and Sre Peng villages. Government spokesman Phay Siphan said yesterday that if the sub-decree indeed involved the six families’ land, unless an overriding sub-decree had been issued subsequently, those responsible for the evictions could find themselves in jail…

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作者: Phak Seangly, Phnom Penh Post

More than 200 angry ethnic Kuoy villagers who claim their land has been stolen by a Chinese-owned sugar company were blocked from protesting as Prime Minister Hun Sen inaugurated the firm’s mill in Preah Vihear province…The mill will process sugarcane grown on 40,000 hectares of land granted as economic land concessions to Rui Feng and four sister companies.

However, groups of villagers claim the land is theirs and have been involved in a protracted dispute with Rui Feng since 2012. In the latest action, the villagers…prepared 400 thumbprints on a petition to cancel the concession…

Addressing attendees yesterday, Hun Sen hailed the project as a major job creator, but cautioned that Rui Feng would need to provide suitable compensation and facilities to attract workers…The premier warned the company that if it “want[s] workers to work here, you need to build houses for them, provide a proper salary and . . . build a school and hospital.” He also discouraged Rui Feng from expanding onto new land, and admonished them to “have good relations with farmers”. “The land is still their land…” he added.

Company reps could not be reached for comment on past disputes or relations with locals.

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作者: Asia Indigenous Peoples Pact Foundation (AIPP)

"Contribution to the UNSR Thematic Report on Natural Resource Exploitation and the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association", 31 Jan 2015

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