中國:SACOM報告指Zara、H&M、Gap代工廠勞動環境仍存在多種問題,呼籲公司改善工時、工資、結社自由等

[企業責任資源中心邀請Inditex/ZaraH&MGap回應,請查看以下企業回應]

"SACOM的調查員於2015年以及2016年的春天,以工人身份於四間位於中國及沿海以及內陸省份的代工廠進行臥底調查…發現,這些代工廠為了達成品牌緊迫的送貨時間,迫使工人加班…是次所有工廠的工資都以十分微薄的固定件價計算,工人唯有透過加班盡其可能地增加產量,才能勉強餬口。淡旺季以及品牌頻繁地改變訂單款式更令工人的工資不穩定。總的來說,工人的工資實質上十分低,不足以維持生活所需… 工人經常在沒有充足防護設備的情況下接觸有毒化學物品,棉塵和有害粉塵…所有工廠都沒有能真正代表工人的工會,或者讓員工發聲的管道。工會大多由管理層組成;當工人嘗試罷工時,工人代表則被工廠打壓或是賄賂..."

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企業回應
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作者: Gap

"We have taken the SACOM report seriously and our Supplier Sustainability team has conducted full investigations into the two facilities named in the report. For the issues raised in the report that were validated and found to be true, we are working with our suppliers to develop time-bound action plans to resolve them, and address their root causes to ensure sustainable improvements are made. We will also be partnering with the other buyers that work with these suppliers to conduct follow-up visits to validate that all issues identified are fully resolved, and will seek to ensure that the improvements made are sustained in the future."

企業回應
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作者: Inditex

"...Inditex would like to note that it was not contacted by SACOM in the compilation of the report. In response, Inditex would like to...clarify some inaccuracies in the SACOM report; and to provide specific comments relating to Inditex’s approach to each of the report’s three conclusions...1) Inditex Social Compliance Strategy...2) Inditex’s Supply Chain Strategy in China...3) [C]larifying inaccuracies in SACOM’s report...4) Regarding specific factories referenced in the report as producing for Inditex...

5) SACOM’s report conclusion...a)...Facilitate the factories in changing the unfair infrastructure of wages by paying a living wage...Inditex has implemented a global strategy for living wages...with the partnership of IndustriALL Global Union...Promoting collective bargaining...Responsible purchasing practices...Improved working methods and systems...Collaboration with other stakeholders...Support campaigns...b)...Provide workers with sufficient working health and safety training and empower them with information...Inditex thus conducts ongoing commitment to training suppliers, placing the resources they need at their disposal...c)...Give back workers’ right to organise, [form] a genuine represented worker union...Inditex considers that worker participation in the supply chain as a core principle, and this is reflected in the Global Framework Agreement signed with IndustriALL Global Union in 2007...With regards to China...Inditex is working with IndustriALL on a project in Guangdong to better understand working conditions in the region and establish action plans to improved worker welfare. Nanhai Nan Bao Shoes Factory is specifically involved in this programme..."

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企業回應
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作者: H&M

“...H&M has been addressing these issues for years and has put great effort in the sourcing countries to improve working conditions and strengthen workers' rights. There are still challenges, but we can see that the work we do makes a difference. 

In China, we have a team of around 40 people dedicated to driving our sustainability programs...[W]e are well aware of the challenges raised in the report, including issues with transparency. We believe...in supporting [long-term business partners] to handle challenges common to the industry. Transparency is a fundamental requirement in all our business relationships. Our team frequently visit the factories, also on an unnanounced basis, and regularly conduct interviews with the workers. 

We agree that improvement in workers’ ability to negotiate and collective bargaining is key to drive sustainable improvements in the industry, which is why we have initiated several programs to support functional worker representation in our suppliers’ factories (democratically elected workers participating committees or trade unions) in China in order to strengthen workers right to collective bargaining and wage negotiations. H&M is since 2013 running a Social Dialogue project in China supporting our Fair Living Wage Strategy. The goal is that all our strategic suppliers should have democratically elected workers representatives in place...In 2013 we launched our Fair Living Wage Strategy, which is an important contribution to the work towards fairer pay in the textile industry...”

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文章
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作者: Olivia Yang & J. Michael Cole, The News Lens

Three of the world’s top fashion labels, Zara, H&M and Gap, are supplied from factories which abuse workers’ rights, a...non-government organization...Students and Scholars Against Corporate Misbehavior (SACOM) says it went undercover inside factories in Guangdong, Anhui, Shandong, and Hubei, provinces where shoes or garments for the brands are made…Despite the companies’ claims to strong corporate social responsibility (CSR) records, SACOM says its investigation reveals a “remarkable disparity between the brands’ supplier factory CSR policies and the reality in their Chinese supplier factories.”

 …SACOM is calling on the companies to work with its suppliers to improve working hours, remove “unfair” pay structures, provide a safe working environment and allow worker representation in unions.

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報告
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作者: Students and Scholars Against Corporate Misbehaviour (SACOM)

…In...2015 and 2016, SACOM conducted undercover investigations inside four of Zara, H&M, and GAP’s supplier factories in China…

[T]he research found that…supplier factories force workers to work overtime to meet disproportionally tight delivery time…Their wages were even unstable due to the frequent changes in designs, and difference between high and low seasons. Workers ended up not being paid a living wage…[W]orkers were exposed to toxic chemicals, cotton dust and hazardous dusts without protective gear…[T]here was no genuine representation of workers or channel for workers to voice out. Worker unions were formed by managers themselves; when workers went on strike, they were suppressed or corrupted by the factory...

This report points out that the real reason why brands CSR policies have evolved for more than a decade but still failed to achieve their CSR goals is that they merely rely on the falsifying and top-down audits. SACOM demands three brands take the following actions:

-        Facilitate the factories in changing the unfair infrastructure of wages by paying a living wage for the work within standard working hours.
-        Provide workers with sufficient working health and safety training and empower them with information and knowledge to safeguard their own rights.
-        Give back workers’ right to organise, form a genuine represented worker union such that they can elect their own representatives and have collective bargaining with the factory to fight for a better working condition.

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報告
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作者: 大学师生监察无良企业行动 (SACOM)

SACOM的调查员于2015年以及2016年的春天,以工人身份于四间位于中国及沿海以及内陆省份的代工厂进行卧底调查…发现,这些代工厂为了达成 品牌紧迫的送货时间,迫使工人加班…是次所有工厂的工资都以十分微薄的固定件价计算,工人唯有透过加 班尽其可能地增加产量,才能勉强餬口。淡旺季以及品牌频繁地改变订单款式更令工人的工资不稳定。总的来说,工人的工资实质上十分低,不足以维持生活所需…工人经常在没有充足防护设备的情况下接触有毒化学物品,棉尘和有害粉尘…所有工厂都没有能真正代表工人的工会,或者让员工发声的管道。工会大多由管理层组成;当工人尝试罢工时,工人代表则被工厂打压或是贿赂。

…尽管品牌的社会企业责任政策在十多年间看似不断「进化」,然而仅倚赖这种由上而下、误导的查厂方法…

SACOM在报告中呼吁,如果品牌不希望他们的企业社会责任只是一种伪善,必须立即采取以下行动:

1. 令代工厂改变不公平的薪资架构,在法定工作时间内支付工人生活工资
2. 提供工人足够的职业健康安全训练,令他们得以捍卫自己的权利
3. 还给工人组织真正代表工人的工会的权利,令他们可以民主选出工人代表并与工厂集体协商以争取更好的工作环境

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文章
18 July 2016

戳破品牌企業社會責任的假面——ZARA、H&M、GAP中國代工廠調查報告

作者: 大學師生監察無良企業行動(SACOM)

SACOM的調查員於2015年以及2016年的春天,以工人身份於四間位於中國及沿海以及內陸省份的代工廠進行臥底調查…發現,這些代工廠為了達成品牌緊迫的送貨時間,迫使工人加班…是次所有工廠的工資都以十分微薄的固定件價計算,工人唯有透過加班盡其可能地增加產量,才能勉強餬口。淡旺季以及品牌頻繁地改變訂單款式更令工人的工資不穩定。總的來說,工人的工資實質上十分低,不足以維持生活所需…工人經常在沒有充足防護設備的情況下接觸有毒化學物品,棉塵和有害粉塵…所有工廠都沒有能真正代表工人的工會,或者讓員工發聲的管道。工會大多由管理層組成;當工人嘗試罷工時,工人代表則被工廠打壓或是賄賂。

…儘管品牌的社會企業責任政策在十多年間看似不斷「進化」,然而僅倚賴這種由上而下、誤導的查廠方法…

SACOM在報告中呼籲,如果品牌不希望他們的企業社會責任只是一種偽善,必須立即採取以下行動:

1. 令代工廠改變不公平的薪資架構,在法定工作時間內支付工人生活工資
2. 提供工人足夠的職業健康安全訓練,令他們得以捍衛自己的權利
3. 還給工人組織真正代表工人的工會的權利,令他們可以民主選出工人代表並與工廠集體協商以爭取更好的工作環境

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